|Brand:||Seiko, Suwa Seikosha|
|Diameter:||25.60 mm (11.5 ligne)|
|Complications:||Bilingual Day Wheel, Date, Day, Hacking Seconds, Instant Date Change, Instant Day Change, Quick Date Correction, Quick Day Correction|
|Hands:||Central Hour Hand, Central Minute Hand, Central Seconds Hand, Date Window at 3:00, Day Window at 3:00|
|Distinguishing Technical Characteristics|
|Production: 1972 – 1981|
Cal. 3863A was an early quartz movement with day and date. It was produced by Suwa Seikosha from 1978 into the 1980s and was a cost-reduced version of the Cal. 38 family with the name 38QRW. A similar movement without the day wheel was Cal. 3862A (38QRC).
This movement was differentiated in the Cal. 38 line in many ways: It lacks the thermocompensation circuit seen in higher models, relies on a simple condenser block adjustment mechanism, and has fewer jewels. This adjustment system and the large old 16 KHz quartz crystal were found on the earliest members of the family, but this movement continued to use them almost a decade later. This radically reduced battery life and accuracy compared to contemporary movements, but likely helped Seiko recoup its development investment. Eventually the movement, with its complicated wheel train and many jewels, was obsoleted by the newest developments in the 1980s.
This meant accuracy was worse than the similar Cal. 3823A at 10 seconds per month. Yet this was still far more accurate than a contemporary mechanical chronometer. Seiko produced 13 different adjuster blocks but these are likely impossible to find, making it impossible to regulate an original Cal. 3863A movement.
Like all members of the Seiko Cal. 38 family, it was fitted with 7 jewels, a large number for the time and more than most later quartz movements. Early examples used a 16 KHz crystal, but this was upgraded to 32 KHz later in the production run and many examples were retrofitted with this component. Because the adjuster was part of the circuit unit, many examples have the later variable adjuster and may therefore be as accurate as higher-end Cal. 38 movements.
Cal. 3863A was replaced by the “Lord Quartz” Cal. 084 later in the 1970s, though this movement remained in production for most of the decade.
Cal. 3863A Applications
Cal. 3863A was used in a variety of watches throughout the late 1970s. It was used in less-expensive steel-cased models labeled “Seiko Quartz QR” and using the “38QRW” name in catalogs. It first appears in the 1975 catalog.
Suwa Seikosha 38 Stream Overview
Seiko’s Cal. 38 series was the first volume-production quartz movement family from Seiko. The architecture and design set the template for all future quartz movements, and it was the premier product that pushed Seiko to the top of the watch industry in the 1970s. Cal. 38 movements were positioned in the mid-range to superior market segments, including the “QT”, “QR”, “SQ VFA”, and “GFA Superior” lines.
Seiko was quietly racing to develop a quartz watch movement in the 1960s, and delivered their first Cal. 35 movement to the Neuchatel Observatory in late 1967, just a few months after the CEH delivered their “Beta” quartz movement prototypes. A product of Suwa Seikosha, Cal. 35A used a 8,192 Hz of 16,384 Hz quartz crystal and an integrated circuit from Intersil in the USA. Seiko offered Cal. 35 SQ for sale in the Seiko Astron watch on Christmas Day, 1969, with 100 examples sold in the first month. Suwa rival Daini Seikosha developed their own movement, Cal. 36, and launched it in 1970, but neither movement was truly produced in volume.
Cal. 380x were the lower-end movements but were still accurate to 2 minutes per year. However these movements lacked any adjustment beyond replacement of the condenser block. Cal. 382x included a thermocompensation circuit and was accurate to 1 minute per year. It could be regulated using a step variable condenser. All basic movements used 7 jewels: Two each on the third wheel, sweep second wheel, and step rotor, and another used on the seconds hand finger.
Suwa Seikosha 38 Stream Technology
Suwa Seikosha developed Cal. 38 as a full-production midrange to high-end quartz movement, and it incorporates many features that now seem commonplace but were groundbreaking at the time. The quartz crystal oscillated at 16,384 Hz and it used a CMOS integrated circuit to reduce battery consumption, though later examples used a 32 KHz crystal. The hands were operated by a stepper motor and a jeweled backlash pin ensured a smooth dead beat seconds hand. The earliest examples were sold as “VFA” (“Very Fine Adjustment”) and were adjusted for temperature and in 6 positions.
Early examples of Cal. 3823 use a large 16 KHz quartz tube and unusual “step variable condenser” regulation system using multiple contacts for variable resistance. The design was evolved over time to use a more integrated quartz module and smaller ICs as technology advanced. The final Cal. 3823A had a small 32 KHz quartz tube and modern screw-type trimmer condenser for adjustment. The circuit block and crystal oscillator were also combined in later examples. These components could be retrofitted to earlier movements, and many were during service. 16 KHz examples are rare today.
These movements were produced in larger volume but were still quite high-end compared to mass-market quartz watches later in the 1970s.
Suwa Seikosha 38 Stream Family
All 38×3 movements were branded “38SQW” or “38QTW” and included day and date. Cal. 38×2 is branded “38QTC” and is date-only. Cal. 38×0 was branded “38SQ” and lacks the calendar function.
One unusual (and rare) version is Cal. 3819A, used in “38DQC” models called Dual-Zone Timer. This was Seiko’s first GMT quartz watch. Even rare is Cal. 3870A, a time-only version used as “38RW” in Seiko’s first quartz railway watch, model QYE010 (3870-0010).
The 38SQ “VFA” line was replaced by the 48GQ “Grand Quartz” and 48SQ “Superior” line. The 38QT “QT” line was replaced by the 08KQ “King Quartz”, 38QR “Lord Quartz”, and 08QT line. The QR line of watches were replaced by the cheaper “Type II” models.Images are taken from official publications and are used here for commentary and educational purposes. Copyright is held by the original owner as noted.